The entire Kalpa-sutra of Apastamba is divided into 30 sections, called Prasnas, literally questions. The first 24 of these teach the performance of the so-called. 20 Jan Book Source: Digital Library of India Item : Sastri, va ioned. श् मात् नमःINTRODUCTION TO THE GRIHYA-SUTRAS We begin our discussion on Grihya Sutras which are coined with a name that life style i.

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After having kindled the sacred fire, and having wiped the ground around the altar, one shall place the sacred fuel on the fire every morning and evening, according to the prescription [of the Grhya-sutra]. To him [the teacher] the [student] shall offer [a portion of the alms], Prasna 1. II, 5, 13, Nor on a seat that stands more firmly fixed [on the ground than that of his teacher].

The last part of the Sutra may also be interpreted: The deaf and dumb who cannot make use of the sacred knowledge are thus excluded.

The barking of [many] dogs, the braying of [many] donkeys, the cry of a wolf or of a solitary jackal or of an owl, all sounds of musical instruments, of weeping, and of the Saman melodies [are reasons for discontinuing the study of the Veda]. If lightning flashes continuously, or, thunder rolls continually, if a man has neglected to purify himself, if he has partaken of a meal in honour of a dead person, or if apasttamba lies on the ground, [in these cases] they forbid the mental recitation [of the daily portion of the Veda].

By this sutra Apastamba shows that the rule forbidding a student to eat pungent condiments, salt etc. In four of these passages, Dh. If by chance [through the student’s stupidity the teaching] is not completed, obedience towards the [teacher is the student’s only refuge].


But, if one wears a [lower] garment only, one shall wrap it around the lower part of his body. In two passages he settles contested points on the authority of those who know the Nyaya, i. He allows legitimate sons only to inherit their father’s estate and to follow the occupations of his caste, and he explicitly forbids the sale and gift of children.


Nor whilst they [criminals] are being executed. One need not formally salute a person, who is not a Guru, and who stands in a lower or higher place than oneself. Duties of a teacher Next the teacher’s conduct towards his pupil. Still it seems very improbable that of two authors who both belong to the same Veda and to the same school, the earlier one should hold the later doctrine, and the later one the earlier opinion.

Who this author really was, is a problem which cannot be solved for the present, and which probably will always remain unsolved, because we know his family name only. He shall avoid studying the Veda on a high-road.

The Apastamba-grihya-sutra

Tasminscaiva vidydkarmd ntam avipratipanne dharmebhyah II 13 II Respect must be shown to those who are superior by caste. At the new moon, [he shall not study] for two days and two nights. And whilst other noises [are being heard, the recitation of the Veda shall be discontinued], if apastambx mix [with the voice of the person studying].

Loving him like a son and totally devoted to him, the teacher should impart knowledge to him, without holding anything back, with respect to any of the Laws. Apastambz that it is inferred that Manu and other [authors of law-books] knew such texts of the Brahmanas. One shall face the teacher though the latter does not face him.

Then he shall bathe, reciting the Pavamanis and the other [texts mentioned above, 1. On linguistic grounds it seems Apastamba cannot be placed later than the third century B.

Illegitimate sons, the illegitimate sons of wives, the legitimate -and illegitimate offspring of daughters, and the children of relatives, or even of strangers who may be solemnly adopted, or received as members of the family without any ceremony, or be acquired by purchase, are all allowed to take the place and the rights of legitimate sons 1.

Nor shall one place fire under one’s bedstead. By continuing to use this website, you agree to their use. Nor at night with open doors, diva ca- apihite 1 1 79 1 1 The complete sentences are, The sacrificer: If the [student] errs, [the teacher] shall always reprove him.

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Apastamba, in describing the Sraddhas or funeral oblations says Dh. The girdle [mekhala] of a Brahmana shall be made of Munja grass, and Consists of three strings if possible, [the strings] should be twisted to the right. At night [he shall not study] in a forest, where there is no fire nor gold. But some declare, that, if a student who has bathed [after completing his studies] is called by his teacher or has gone to see him, he shall not take off that [garland or other ornaments] apastambw he wears according to the law at the time [of that ceremony].


Here the sutra doesn’t refer to food but rather money received as alms or a donation. As apastwmba other author of a Dharma-sutra but Baudhayana is known to have quoted it, the conclusion is that Apastamba’s remarks are directed against him.

Manu 4, and Nor that food sutrw which there is a hair, Manu 4, ; Yajn. This Sutra, like the preceding, refers to those who are not ‘Gurus.

Introduction to the Apastamba Sutras

If Apastamba does not mention Baudhayana by name, the reason probably is that in olden times, just as in the present day, the Brahmanical etiquette forbad a direct opposition against doctrines propounded by an older teacher who belongs to the same spiritual family vidyavamsa as oneself.

If no one is there to give permission the student at home should follow the rule given in If the teacher does happen to fall from the practice of Dharma then the student has the right to tactfully upbraid him, if he continues in malpractice the student should leave and find another teacher.

They are mostly given as seshas or parisishtas, tacked on at apastambz end, and generally marked as such in the MSS. But it would seem that it happened a considerable time before the Vedic period came to an end, and it certainly was an accomplished fact, long before the authenticable history of India begins, about B.

Alms are declared to be sacrificial food and apastammba acarya [is in the position which] a deity [holds in regard to food offered at a sacrifice]. It fully confirms the result of the preceding enquiry, viz.