elaborated with the help of the Keros classification. classification was used for the measurement of the depth of the olfactory fossa as follows. To determine the Keros classification and asymmetrical distribution rates of the ethmoid roof and the frequency of anatomic variations of the paranasal sinuses. Acta Otolaryngol. Feb;(2) doi: / Epub Sep 9. Is the Keros classification alone enough to identify.

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Radiology info hub: Keros Classification

Paranasal sinus scans of patients obtained using computed tomography were evaluated retrospectively. The results were categorized according to Keros classification, and their distributions were analyzed according to gender. The average age of the patients was The right and left sides were classified as having different Keros types in 5.

Keros in 1classified the depth into three categories. Computed tomographic imaging to determine the frequency of anatomical variations in pneumatization of the ethmoid bone. They reported a statistically significant height difference between the right and left sides in women and men.

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Minor complications occur in 1. The cases were classified as The depth of the olfactory fossa was determined by the length of the highest lateral lamella and classified into types I, II or III, according to the Keros criteria Kerso 34 and 5. The radiographic incidence of bony defects in the lateral lamella of the cribriform plate.

Endoscopic anatomy of the anterior ethmoidal artery: It is used not only for the treatment of chronic rhinosinusitis that is resistant to medical treatment but also in the treatment of a number of diseases such as nasal polyposis, mucocele, sellar and parasellar tumors, and optic nerve decompression [ 1 ]. Coronal images can particularly be considered as maps in the evaluation of the anatomy that is highly variable even between the two sides of a same individual, demonstrating areas potentially at risk for complications in the planning of endoscopic nasal surgeries 12,14,17,19, Measurements between the right and left sides were compared.


Footnotes Conflict of interest statement: A In a coronal paranasal sinus CT cross-section, the point where the ethmoid roof medially intersects with the lateral lamella, B cribriform plate point, C infraorbital nerve point. The images were examined in the bone window on a digital screen. All of the cases included in the study were evaluated by the same radiology expert. The lamina lateralis of the lamina cribrosa forms the thin medial wall of the ethmoid roof.

The roof of the anterior ethmoid: The sample of this study included patients 83 [ Z Laryngol Rhinol Otol. Radiol Clin North Am.

Loading Stack – 0 images remaining. Distribution and percentage values of the cribriform plate lateral lamella depth in symmetry-asymmetry low ethmoid roof groups. Fovea configuration asymmetry was present in only nine cases.

Keros classification of olfactory fossa | Radiology Reference Article |

Maxillary sinus MS variations include sinus septation, accessory ostium, and sinus hypoplasia. In CT examination, the paranasal sinus is found in coronal cross-sections at the anterior region of the joint connecting the middle concha to the skull base. The fovea ethmoidalis also medially connects with the lateral lamella of the cribriform plate Figure 1.

The cross-section in which the infra-orbital nerve follows the base of the orbita was taken as the reference point for the measurements in this study.

Measurements were performed using the distance measurement technique in the coronal plane. In their study, Alazzawi et al. The most frequently found anatomic variation in our study was nasal septum deviation In this study, a specially designed work station and computed tomography with a multiplanar reconstruction were used to investigate anatomic variations and ethmoid roof depth and asymmetry in detail.

The relevance of evaluating the ethmoid roof, both by means of endoscopy and CT, for preventing surgical complications has been approached by several studies in the medical literature 24,7,8,10,14,30, Imaging of the paranasal sinuses and nasal cavity: The role of CT in functional endoscopic sinus surgery.

Any asymmetries in the ethmoid roof depth and fovea ethmoidalis configuration were examined.


The knowledge about the complex skull base anatomy and anatomical relations, including the fovea ethmoidalis and lateral lamella of the cribriform plate, is essential in the prevention of complications in endoscopic nasal surgeries 3, Sagittal and coronal dimensions of the ethmoid roof: Difference in the height of the right and left ethmoidal roofs: By means of three-dimensional display of the critical measurements, the authors suggest a novel definition of ‘dangerous ethmoid’.

Kers Clin North Am. The end goal of these investigations was to gather this knowledge in an effort to reduce the rate of complications of endoscopic sinus surgery. This structure makes up the anterior and inferior wall of the recess [ 13 ]. The length of a vertical line drawn from the cribriform plate to the horizontal plane was defined as the cribriform plate height Figure 3.

In adults, the olfactory recess is a variable depression in the cribriform plate that medially is bounded by the perpendicular plate and laterally kreos the lateral lamella. Measurements were performed using a coronal plan with right-left comparison and with distance measurement techniques. The fovea ethmoidalis and lateral lamella are the most important parts of the skull base in terms of the risk of complication development during ESS [ 78 ].

The length of the classkfication line drawn from the medial ethmoid roof to the horizontal plane was defined as the medial ethmoid roof height. Radiological classification of anterior skull base anatomy prior to performing medial orbital wall decompression. This low-hanging roof may cause cerebrospinal fluid fistula and recurrent meningitis postoperatively [ 1011 ]. There may be complications to endoscopic sinus surgery because it is performed in a complex region.

Maxillary sinus septa may be fibrous or bone and classivication stretch from the infraorbital canal to the lateral wall. A radiological anatomic study of the cribriform plate compared with constant structures.